Author: Gailan Abdulrazaq
Directorate general of education, Salahaldden governorate
Author: Adnan F. AL-Azaawie
College of Science, University of Tikrit
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. The reported studies suggest an association between genotypes and disease severity. Therefore, aim of this study was to determine hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Samara City. Blood samples from 96 patients (males (53%), females (47%) with HBV chronic infection were collected from Samarra General Hospital and blood bank in Samarra city, who diagnosed as cases of hepatitis B and attend to the hospital for monitoring and follow-up. All the serum samples were tested for HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcIgM, and HBcIgG by commercially – available (ELISA) kits, DNA was isolated from serum samples and genotypes determined by PCR technique. The Genotype D was the predominant (93.1%, 81/87) genotype in our tested samples. HB genotype C detected in 3.45 % (3/87) of tested samples. HB genotype C & F, A & D, and B & D were detected in 1.15% (1/87) for each. Mean serum IL-17 value was lower in cases with negative viral load (2.56 ± 1.23) as determined by PCR, than all other cases with D and with mixed B and D genotypes. However, ANOVA test did not show a significance. Mean serum IL-17 was 7.94 ±5.64 in cases with HB D genotype, 1.56 ±0.57 was with genotype C, 3.25 with B & D genotype, 2.44 with A & D genotype and 1.82 with C & F genotype. The difference in mean serum value (IL-17) between negative cases and with D genotype was marginally significant, but it was significant between D genotype and combined genotypes (P=0.0018-0.0001). Conclude that HBV D genotype was the predominant, in addition, A, B, C, and F genotypes are reported for the first time in Iraq and may be Arab countries and Mediterranean Region.
Keywords: HBV, Hepatitis, Genotype. Duplicate null
- Tarky A.A.M., Akram W., Al-Naaimi A.S., Omer A.R. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C in Iraq: a national survey 2005-2006. Zanco J. Med. Sci,17: 2013,370-80.
- Guirgis B.B.S.,Abbass R.O.,Azzay H.M.E. Hepatitis b virus genotyping : current methods and clinical implication. Int.J. Infec. Diseases. 2010 ,(14) e941-e53.
- Huy T., Ngoc T., Abe K. New complex recombinant genotype of Hepatitis B virus identified in Vietnam. J. Virol. 2008, 82: 5657–63.
- Tatematsu K., Tanaka Y., Kurbanov F., et al. A genetic variant of Hepatitis B virus divergent from known human and ape genotypes isolated from a Japanese patient and provisionally assigned to new genotype. J. Virol .2009, 83: 10538–547.
- Kramvis A., Kew M., Francois G. Hepatitis B virus genotypes. Vaccine, 2005, 23: 2409–23.
- Liu C., Kao J. Hepatitis B virus genotypes: epidemiology and therapeutic implications. Hep. B. Annual, 2006,3:54–75.
- You J., Sriplung H., Chongsuvivatwong V., et al. Profile, spectrum and significance of Hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic HBV-infected patients in Yunnan, China. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis. Int. 2008 ,7:271–9
- Toan N.L., Song le H., Kremsner P.G., et al. Impact of the Hepatitis B virus genotype and genotype mixtures on the course of liver disease in Vietnam. Hepat. 2006,43:1375–84.
- Huang Y., Wang Z., An S., et al . Role of Hepatitis B virus genotypes and quantitative HBV DNA in metastasis and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Med. Virol. 2008,80:591–7.
- Valsamakis A. Molecular testing in the diagnosis and management of chronic Hepatitis B. Clin. Micro. Rev, 2007 ,20:426–39.
- Khalid M.D. Determination of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among HBS Ag positive blood donors in Morsel central blood bank/Iraq. Global Adva. Res. J. 2014, 3(4) 084-086.
- Shafiq M.Y. Hepatitis B virus genotype among acute and chronic Hepatitis B virus infection in Ninavah Governorate/Iraq. Iraqi J. Gastroenterology . 2014, (3) 1.
- Abdo AA, Al-Jarallah BM, Sanai FM,.et al. Hepatitis B genotypes: relation to clinical outcome in patients with chronic Hepatitis B in Saudi Arabia. World J. Gastroenterol. 2006 , 12: 7019-24.
- Alfaresi M., Elkoush A., Alshehhi H., Alzaabi A., Islam A. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and precore and core mutants in UAE patients. Virol. J. 2010, 7: 160.
- A. and WilliamTong C.Y. African links and Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Republic of Yemen. Med. Virol. 2004, 73:23-28.
- El Chaar M., El Jisr T., Allain J.P. Hepatitis B DNA splicing in Lebanese blood donors and genotype A-E strains: implications for HBV DNA quantification and infectivity. J. Clin. Micr. 2012, 10: 01251-12.
- Masaadeh H.A., Hayajneh W.A., Alqudah E.A. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and lamivudine resistance mutations in Jordan. World J. Gastroenterol. 2008, 14: 7231-34.
- Salem M.A., Elnifro E.M., Alshuwen F. Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Isolates in Libya: Predominant Circulation of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D. J. GHR .2012, 1: 119-21.
- Mansour W., Malick F.Z., Sidiya A., et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis delta virus in pregnant women and in patients in Mauritania. J. Med. Virol. 2012, 84: 1186-98.
- Kitab B., El Feydi A.E., Afifi R., et al. Hepatitis B genotypes/ subgenotypes and MHR variants among Moroccan chronic carriers. J. Infect. 2011, 63: 66-75.
- Antaki N, Haffar S, Ali Deeb S. ,et al.,Syrian Working Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis. High prevalence of HBV genotype D in Syria and the clinical characteristics of Hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic Hepatitis B. Epidem. Infect. 2010, 138: 40-44.
- Thieme T. , Yoshihara P. , Piacentini and Beller M. Clinical evaluation of oral fluid samples for diagnosis of viral Hepatitis, J. Clin. Micro. 1992, 30; (5): 1076-79.
- Nokes D. J. , Enquselassie F. , Nigatu , et al. Has oral fluid the potential to replace serum for the evolution of population Immunity levels : A study of measles ,rubella and Hepatitis B in rural ethiopia, Bulletin of the World Health organization J. 2001, 79;(7): 588-95.
- Chen J., Yin J., Tan X., et al. Improved multiplex-PCR to identify Hepatitis B virus genotypes A–F and subgenotypes B1, B2, C1 and C2. J. Clin. Virol. 2007,38:238–43.
- Zekri A.R., Hafez M.M., Mohamed N.I., et al. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and chronic active HBV infection. Virol. J. 2007,4:74.
- Elsheikh R.M., Daak A.A., Elsheikh M.A., Karsany M.S., Adam I. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women. Virol. J. 2007,4: 104.
- Alavian S.M. Control of Hepatitis C in Iran: vision and missions. Hepat Mon. 2007 ,7;(2):57-8.
- Mojiri A., Behzad- Behbahani A., Saberifiroze M., Ardabili M., Beheshti M., Rahsazm et al. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in south west Iran: Molecular, Serological and Clinical outcomes. Gasterenterol. 2008, 14;(10): 1510-13.
- Amini-Bavil-OlyaeeS.,Sarrami- Forooshani R.,Adeli A.,SabahiF and Mahboudi F. Complete genomic Hepatitis B virus isolates from Iran. Med. virol. 2005 ,76:318-326.
- Idrees M., Khan S., Riazuddin S. Common genotypes of Hepatitis B virus. Coll. physicians surgpak. 2011 , 14;(6): 44-47.
- Yalcinkayak T.U., Car H., Uzin M, Esen B., Shirachi R., Yamamoto H. Subtypes of Hepatitis B sufer antigen in Turkey. Infect. Dis. 2005 , 58: 120-22.
- Schaefer S., Magnius L., Norder H. Under construction: classification of Hepatitis B virus genotypes and subgenotypes. Inter Virol. 2009, 52: 323–325.
- Hwang E.W.,Cheung R. Global epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV).North Amer. J. Med. Sci. 2011,4;(1):7-13.
- Miyakawa Y. and Mizokami M. Classifying Hepatitis B virus genotypes, InterVirol, 2003, 46;(6): 329–338.
- Scotto G.,Martinelli D.,Di Tullio R., and Fazio V. Epidemiological and clinical features of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among immigration in Southern Italy. Hepat. Res. Treat. 2010, ID 878356, 6.
- Kao J.H., Chen P.J., Lai M.Y., Chen D.S. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection and clinical outcomes of patients with chronic Hepatitis C. J Clin.Micro. 2002,40 ;(11):4068-71.
- Mayerat C., Mantegani A., Frei P.C. Does Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype influence the clinical outcome of HBV infection. J. Viral. Hepat. 1999 ,6:299–304.
- Thakur V., Guptan R.C., Kazim S.N., Malhotra V., Sarin S.K. Profile, spectrum and significance of HBV genotypes in chronic liver disease patients in the Indian subcontinent. J. Gastroenterol Hepat, 2002. 17:165–70.
- Kao J.H., Wu N.H., Chen P.J., Lai M.Y., Chen D.S. Hepatitis B genotypes and the response to interferon therapy. J. Hepatol, 2000.33:998–02.
- Nakayoshi T., Maeshiro T., Nakayoshi T., et al. Difference in prognosis between patients infected with Hepatitis B virus with genotype B and those with genotype C in the Okinawa Island: a prospective study. J. Med. Viorl. 2003. 70;(3): 350-54.
- Orito E., Mizokami M. Difference of HBV genotype and hepatocellural carcinoma in Asian countries. Hepatol Res. 2007,37:S33- 35