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Assessment of Inerferon Gamma (Ifn-Γ ) & Interleukin-10 (Il-10) in Patients Afflected with Celiac Disease

Author: Zaid Nabeel Elia
Medical laboratory Department, Erbil Polytechnic University, Technical Health College

Author: Saeed Ghulam Hussain
Microbiology Department, Hawler Medical University

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24086/cuesj.si.2017.n2a6

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated malabsorption syndrome that occur in genetically susceptible individuals intolerant to dietary gluten. Although considered as a primary gastrointestinal disease, CD is now known to have widespread systemic manifestation.We attempted to define the nature and role of some systemic cytokine that possibly play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease.

The sera were collected from those patient suspected  of having CD on clinical ground (Newly diagnosed) & then subjected to serologic tests namely anti – tissue transglutaminase IgA, IgG (tTG) & IgA, IgG – Endomysial antibody (EMA).

The positive sera for anti – tTG IgA and IgA EMA autoantibody above the cut-off  level were then subjected to cytokines assessment namely serum interferon gamma (IFN- γ) and interleukin-10 (IL -10) level.

The participant groups comprised 50 newly diagnosed (ND) CD, 20 patients on gluten free diet (GFD) and 20 apparently healthy CD free control (These groups were subjected to the above parameters).

The results of the present study among the newly diagnosed cases reveals anti-tTG IgA  and IgA – EMA seropositivity in 15.1 % of the total 330 sera examined ;with anti-tTG IgG & IgG -EMA  seronegativity (below the cut-off ) in all sera tested. The highest percent distribution of anti-tTG IgA and IgA -EMA seropositivity was at the serum concentration of 20-29 (36 % & 34 % respectively).

A significant decrease (P˂ 0.01) was observed in the mean concentration of anti-tTG IgA  and IgA- EMA between newly diagnosed CD and patients on GFD. The mean concentration of IFN-γ  and IL -10  cytokine was significantly higher (P ˂ 0.01) among newly diagnosed and patient on GFD when compared with health control.

The serum concentration of IFN-γ  and IL-10  according to mode of clinical presentation & duration of disease revealed no significant differences (P > 0.05) except for IL – 10 (≤ 3 years & > 3 years on GFD) P ˂ 0.05.  In newly diagnosed  CD patient, a correlation exist between anti – tTG IgA & IL -10 (P <0.02 ), as IL – 10 has immunostimulatory effect on B – cells.

Keywords: Celiac disease ; IFN-γ  ; IL-10; tTG ; EMA.

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